NTFS is the standard file system of Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista and Windows 7. NTFS replaces FAT file system and provides file system for operating system of Windows series of Microsoft. NTFS has improved FAT and HPFS (high performance file system) in several places. Fox example, it supports metadata and uses senior data structure to improve the property, reliability, and utilization ratio of disk space. It also provides several additional extended functions such as access control list (ACL) and file system journaling. The detailed definition of this file system is business secret, but Microsoft has registered it as an intellectual property product.
Overview of NTFS
NTFS (New Technology File
System) is the file system of Windows NT operating environment and
Windows NT advanced server network operating system
NTFS provides long
file name, data protection and recovery, and implements security through
directory and file. NTFS is in support of storing files (called volume) in large
hard disk and multiple hard disks. For example, the data base of a company is so
large that several hard disks must be used to store it. NTFS provides build-in
security features which control file subordinate relationship and file access.
Files on NTFS partitions can not be accessed in DOS or
other operating systems directly. If users want to read and write NTFS partition
files, the third-party software can be used. Nowadays, NTFS-3G is applied to
read and write NTFS partition files perfectly without any data loss.
Win 2000 adopts newer edition of NTFS file system - NTFS5.0. Its release not only allows users to operate
and manage computer as conveniently and efficiently as that in Win 9X, but also
makes users to enjoy the system security brought by NTFS. The length of long
file name permitted by NTFS is 256 bytes. Although DOS users can not access NTFS
partitions, NTFS files can be copied to DOS partitions. Every NTFS file contains
a DOS readable file name recognized by DOS file name format. And the name comes
from the beginning character of long file name in NTFS.
Features of NTFS
Size of Partitions Supported
The size of
partitions( it is called volume in dynamic
disks ) that NTFS supports is 2TB at most while the size of
partitions supported by FAT 32 in Win 2000 is 32 GB at
Reliable file system
NTFS is a presumable file
system and users hardly need to operate the disk repair program. NTFS guarantees
partitions consistency by using standard transaction log and recovery
technology. When system failure occurs, NTFS will automatically recover
consistency of system by using journal file and checkpoint information.
Support of Folder Compression
NTFS is in support of the
compression of partitions, folders and files. Any application based on Windows
can read and write compressed files in NTFS partitions without uncompressing by
other program in advance. When reading and writing documents begins, files
uncompress program will run automatically. And files will be compressed
automatically when closed or saved.
Efficient Management of Disk Space
NTFS adopts smaller cluster to manage disk space efficiently. In FAT32 file system of Win 2000, when partitions vary from
2GB-8GB, one cluster is 4KB; when partitions vary from 8GB-16GB, one cluster is
8KB; and, when partitions vary from 16GB-32GB, one cluster is 16KB. However, in
NTFS file system of Win2000, when the partition is less than 2GB, the size of
cluster is smaller than that of FAT32. When the partition is bigger than 2GB
(2 GB-2TB), every cluster is 4KB. Therefore, compared with
FAT32, NTFS can manage disk space more efficiently and decrease disk space waste
In NTFS partitions, users can set access
permission authorities of sharing resources, folders and files. It contains tow
aspects: one is which group or user can access the folders, files and sharing
resources and the other is what level the group or user can access.
access permission authorities is not only suitable for local computer users, but
also suitable for network users who access files through network sharing
folders. Compared with access to folders or files in FAT32 file system, it is
more security in NTFS. In addition, in Win 2000 adopting NTFS format, audit
policy can be used to audit folders, files and active directory object.
audit results are recorded in security log. Through the security log, the
administrator can check which group or user has accessed to folders files and
active directory object and what level operation they have done. So the possible
illegal access to the system can be found out and corresponding methods will be
taken to reduce this kind of potential safety hazard furthest. And these can not
be realized in FAT32 file system.
NTFS file system can manage disk quota in Win
2000. Disk quota is that administrator can define the using space for users by
quota limit and every user can only use disk space within the maximum quota.
When disk quota is set, the disk usage of every user can be monitored and
controlled. Through the monitor, the users exceeding quotas alarm threshold and
quota limit can be identified and corresponding methods can be taken. The use of
disk quota management makes the administrator allocate storage resources to
users conveniently and reasonably. And this avoids system crash caused by disk
usage space out of control, which increase the security of system.
also uses a "dynamic" log to record the change of
NTFS also contains encrypted file data and data related to system
service and some other things
Advantages of NTFS
1. Having Error Warming File
In NTFS partitions, the beginning 16 sectors are partition boot sectors, and it stores
partition boot code. The following part is Master File Table (MFT). If the disk sector is destroyed, NTFS file system will
intellectively transfer MFT to other sector of the disk, which makes the system
used normally. That means Windows runs normally.
2. More Efficient in File Read
File attributes in NTFS can
be divided into tow types: resident attributes and non attributes. Resident
attributes are stored in MET directly. File name and related time information
(such as creation time and modification time) belong to resident attributes
forever. Nonresident attributes are not stored in MFT, but it can be indicated
by a complicated indexed mode. If the files or folder s are less than 1500 bytes
(there are many files or folders of this kind in a computer), all of their
attributes and contents are resident in MFT. And MET will be loaded into RAM
while Windows is started. Therefore, when the user look up the files or folders,
they are in cache actually. And this increase the access speed of files and
3. Self-Healing of Disk
NTFS adopts a "self-healing" system
to monitor and amend the logical and physical error in disk.
During the time
of FAT16 and FAT 32, Scandisk is needed to mark destroyed sector in disk.
However, when the error is found, data have been written in the destroyed
sectors, and the loss has been caused.
4. " Disaster Relief"
Function of Event Logs
In NTFS file system, any operation can be
considered as an "event". For example, the process of copying a
file from Disk C to Disk D is an event. Event logs monitor the whole process.
When the whole file is found in the target disk - Disk D, a sign of
"finished" will be marked. If there is a power outage during
the process, the event log will not mark "finished". NTFS can
repeat the event when the power is on.
5. Dynamic Disk of NTFS
Dynamic disk is a new feature from
the time of Windows 2000, and Windows 2003
continue to use this great feature. Compared with the basic disks, it provides
more flexible management and operating characteristics. Operations such as data
faults tolerance, high speed read and write operation, relative optional change
of volume can be realized in the dynamic disk, but these operations can not be
realized in basic disk. Dynamic disk has no limits
to the number of volume. If disk space permits, users can create volumes without
any limitations in the dynamic disk. No matter the dynamic adopts Master Boot
Record (MBR), GUID partition table or GPT partition format, 2,000 dynamic volumes can be created
at most. But the recommended number of dynamic volumes is 32 or even less.
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