Saturday, April 28, 2012

Something about Windows NT

Windows NT is worked out on the base OS/2 NT. OS/2 is developed by Microsoft and IBM together. It has Microsoft OS/2 NT and IBM OS/2 two types. The two firms part on bad terms after cooperation. IBM continues to provide OS/2 version but Microsoft renames its OS/2 NT Wndows NT. That is the first generation of Windows NT 3.1. Windows NT is pure 32-bit operating system. It employs advanced NT core technology. NT stands for New Technology.

Microsoft Windows NT (Network Termination) is a kind of operating system developed by Microsoft. Microsoft hires a few staffs from Digital Equipment Corporation to develop this new system. Many features of this system have showed the early conceptions with VMS, RSX-11, and DEC. Windows NT is the operating system for the workstation, networkserver, and large computer. It can also be used as PC operating system. It has a close relationship with communication services and provides file print service. It can run client/server applications, and it has built-in Internet/Intranet function. It is gradually becoming the standard platform of enterprise network. This article mainly introduces Wondows NT Server4.0.

1. 32-bit operating system. Multiple guide function. It is compatible with other operating systems.
2. It realizes the "preemptive" multitask and multithreading operation.
3. It uses SMP technology and supports multi-CPU system.
4. It supports CISC (such as Intel system) and RISC (such as Power PC, R440) and all kinds of hardware platform.
5. It can realize interoperate with various network operating systems. For example: UNIX, Novel Network, Macintosh, etc. It also provides wide support for the users' operating system, such as MS-DOS, Windows, Windows NT, Workstation, UINX, OS/2, and Macintosh. It supports various agreements: TCP/IP, NetBEUI, DLC, AppleTalk, and NWLINK, etc.
6. The security has satisfied the C2 standard of US Department of Defense.
NT has the features of low price, high application, high security, abundant softwares. It is a popular network operating system. The disadvantages are the weaker file service function than NetWare, and too much occupation of serve resource.

The two versions
The two versions of Wondows NT are Windows NT Workstation and Wondows NT Server.
The goal of Windows NT Workstation design is workstation operating system. It is used at the interactive desktop environment. The goal of Windows NT Server design is the enreprise-class network operating system. It provides easy management, fast reaction network environment. These two versions have the same structure but to adjust to different application environment they have some related changes with the operating efficiency. Windows NT Server has more advanced functions. Windows NT Workstation can be regarded as its subset.

Windows NT Server
1. Optimized specially for the server, it requires higher configuration.
2. It supports 32 CPU at the most.
3. It can be used as network server and connected to clients with no limt to accomplish heavey network tasks.
4. It supports as many as 256 remote clients' access.
5. It supports Macintosh file and print and has a function of disc fault-tolerant.

Windows NT Workstation
1. Hardware suits personal clients. When there are advanced applications like CAD/CAM in the workstation it is required to select and use.
2. It only supports 2 CPU.
3. It can act as network server and be connected to 10 or less clients to accomplish limited network service function.
4. It only supports one remote client's access.
5. It does not support Macintosh file and print and has not the function of disc fault-tolerant.

New concept
(1) NTFS (Windows NT Fiel System): the new file system employed by Windows NT. It provides secure access control and fault-tolerant function. It has higher efficiency than FAT in high-capacity disc.
(2) Share: if the network resource is set with limitation, you cannot visit the resource without permission.
(3) User Account: if you want to use network resource you have to get a user account. Windows NT requires legal account for the users and servicer. When starting up the system the service account created for applications or service process is needed for acquiring the permission and right to use the resource in the system. The common user's account is provided when the user log in. It is used for controlling the permission and right of the user. It is similar to the service account.
(4) Domain: it is the basic unit of Windows NT data security and centralized management. Network is made uo by domains. Every domain has its unique name. It can be regarded as the system formed by servers that uses NT. A group of computers share the common account and secure data base. (5) Workgroup: a kind of network structures that resource and system management is separated. In the workgroup, every computer is reciprocal to each other. Every one computer can be server or workstation.
(6) Right: the authorized user can run some operations in the system. Right is used to protect the whole system.
(7) Perimission: it is used to protect specific object. Permission decides the users to use certain object and the way to use it.
(6) Security examination: Windows NT will record all the processes related to security system.

Windows NT got the bigger success than OS/2, because of its countless features and the market force of Microsoft. 

Development Team
David N.Culter, the founder of NT project. After graduated from high school, he accepted the school scholarship and went to a small college Olivet in Michigan. He palyed football but quitted playing after breaking his leg when he was a sophomore. After graduating he got a job in DUPONT in January, 1965. His work needed computer modeling so he went to a computer programming school of IBM. A new computer series, Prism, was built by DEC but the project was canceled by DEC. Culter left DEC and that had been the rudiment of NT. A friend introduced Culter to the Microsoft, and there Microsoft started NT project. Through 5 years' hard working, with 1.5 billion dollars, more than 200 members, the epoch-making Window NT was developed. 

Bill Gates is a little afraid of Culter. Culter is hard and stern. He is against lazy, confused, and lack of competitiveness. He is not only a legend programmer, but also a great project manager. The project of Windows NT takes very long time, costs lots of money, and staffs. It may be the unprecedented project of history. Windows NT and the later Windows versions have almost unified the PC platform. That is a great contribution to the computer and software development.  

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